The high court, in a case involving Bristol-Myers Squibb, ruled there had to be a connection between the forum and the specific claims at issue.
The $72 million verdict was the first of four multi-million dollar verdicts against the company over talcum powder that was heard in Missouri. The juries there have awarded more than $300 million in verdicts over the talc claims.
The February 2016 verdict for Fox's family was the first of four jury awards totaling $307 million in state court in St. Louis to plaintiffs who accused J&J of not adequately warning consumers about the cancer risks of its talc-based products.
Jurors found Johnson & Johnson liable and awarded $10 million in compensatory damages and $62 million in punitive damages. J&J did prevail in one case there.
The appeals court decision endangers the other Missouri verdicts against J&J as well as hundreds of talc actions filed in the St. Louis court against the company. On Tuesday, a spokesperson said J&J is "pleased with the opinion", adding that the company will "continue to move forward with the appeals process".
A Missouri appeals court has overturned a landmark case against Johnson & Johnson. Numerous talc plaintiffs sued J&J in Missouri but lived in states around the country.
In its Bristol-Myers decision, the Supreme Court decided that patients can't take their pick of venues when suing drugmakers just because drug companies sell products and maintain operations around the country. All told, J&J faces thousands of similar claims in Missouri and elsewhere.
The appeals court cited a Supreme Court ruling in June that placed limits on where injury lawsuits could be filed, saying a state court cannot hear claims brought by out-of-state residents against companies not based in the state.
Meadows said his team will "weigh additional options" for the case.
Ovarian cancer accounts for about 22,000 of the 1.7 million new cases of cancer likely to be diagnosed in the US this year.