The resolution needed at least nine "yes" votes in the 15-member council for approval, but only six countries voted in favor.
Russian Federation said that the Western powers "cynically" carried out military action hours before a team from the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons was set to begin an investigation into the suspected chemical weapons attack in the town of Douma in Eastern Ghouta that sparked the intervention by the United States and its allies.
Russian Federation has warned that any military action against Syria would be in violation of global law as it was carried out without UN Security Council approval.
Russian Federation filed a draft resolution condemning the missile attack as a violation of worldwide law and the UN Charter, and demanding the United States and its allies cease aggression against Syria.
Nebenzia argued before the Security Council that investigators had found no evidence of an attack - and that there was evidence that the USA was training fighters to conduct just such attacks to create the pretext for a military operation. The watchdog group has a mandate to "establish facts surrounding the allegations of the use of toxic chemicals, reportedly chlorine, for hostile purposes in the Syrian Arab Republic". As for the Security Council, while Syria will urge the council to take action against this naked aggression, it has no delusions whatsoever about its role, capability and integrity.
Asked what worries him most about possible military action the USA might take, Mattis said: "On a strategic level, it's how do we keep this from escalating out of control".
A European source said European governments were waiting for the OPCW to carry out its investigation and for more solid forensic evidence from the attack to emerge.
Syrian war monitors say government forces and their allies are on alert and taking precautionary measures at military bases and posts across the country amid fears of a military attack by the United States.
Moscow has big doubts that the fight against terrorism is Washington's sole goal in Syria, he said.
France, the United States and their allies are considering a coordinated military response after accusing the Russia-backed Syrian government of being behind the attack.
He warned that "any Russia-U.S. military clash will expand beyond a local conflict and a confrontation will be inevitable". TASS news agency quoted him as saying he believed common sense would prevail.
In a separate incident, a Russian warplane this weekend flew over a French warship at low altitude in the eastern Mediterranean, a deliberate breach of global regulations, a French naval source said on Tuesday.
The 65-nation Conference on Disarmament, based in Geneva, negotiated the worldwide treaty banning the use of poison gas around the world and reports to the UN General Assembly.
Syria and its ally Russian Federation deny such an attack happened.