"In fact, it takes a very peculiar kind of uniqueness to attack Syria's capital at a time when the country has received a change for peace at last", Zaharova said, according to Russia's TASS news agency.
Russia, a Syrian ally, has warned the U.S. that air strikes risk a new war. They are expected to arrive on Saturday.
Lavrov said Russian Federation had "irrefutable information that it was another fabrication, and intelligence agencies of a state that is now striving to spearhead a Russophobic campaign were involved in that fabrication".
But Kosachyov said Russia's response "should be not military but legal", focused on the United Nations, RIA Novosti reported. The White House said it was continuing to assess intelligence and talk to its allies on how to respond.
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) fact-finding mission team are in Syria and are due to start work and research today.
In the near term, the military strike appeared to ramp up a searing war of words between Washington and Moscow, which regarded the action as a attack on Russian Federation itself.
Diplomats spent most of Saturday morning debating the recent strikes, which USA, United Kingdom and French leaders all said were in response to President Bashar al-Assad's alleged use of chemical weapons against his own people.
"They're cowardly political thugs", Klimov said of the U.S. administration.
The world leaders announced that the strikes targeted positions linked to the chemical weapons facilities of the Syrian government.
There have been six weeks of heavy fighting in the last rebel-held town in eastern Ghouta and around 1700 people are thought to have died.
The Russian military said its chemical experts visited Douma shortly after the alleged attack and found no trace of chemical agents in ground samples.
The Violations Documentation Centre, which records alleged violations of worldwide law in Syria, said bodies were found with foam at the mouth, discoloured skin and burns to the eyes.
On Thursday, unnamed U.S. officials said they had blood and urine samples from victims which had tested positive for chlorine and a nerve agent, according to NBC News.
US Ambassdor to the UN Nikki Haley said on Friday that the US had enough "proof" to act on Syria, but that the president was taking measures to avoid unwanted repercussions.
Russia's denial that the Assad government was responsible for the chemical weapons attack, further angered Trump, one of the USA officials said.
But relations have instead soured over mounting evidence of Russian meddling in the 2016 presidential election, Russia's alleged poisoning of a former double agent in Britain and Putin's support of Assad's government in Syria.