Of these, 555,608 cases of gonorrhea represented a 67 percent uptick in the same time period.
"An STD expert says that President Trump should declare this a public health crisis".
Syphilis diagnoses increased 76 percent, from 17,375 cases to 30,664 cases.
Poverty, stigma and drug use may contribute to the increases, the CDC said.
Nearly half - 45 percent - of chlamydia diagnoses were among 15- to 24-year-old females.
Cases of chlamydia increased by almost seven percent, primary and secondary syphilis cases rose by more than ten percent, and gonorrhea cases soared by almost 19 percent over the past year, according to the CDC data.
"We have seen steep and sustained increases over the last five years", said Dr. Gail Bolan, director of the Division of STD Prevention at the CDC. Around 70 percent of the cases featured gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.
A new CDC report claims an antibiotic-resistant form of the STD could mean the disease may be untreatable in the future.
Increases in gonorrhea among women "are also concerning", said the CDC report, with cases going from 197,499 to 232,587 in a single year from 2016-2017.
There's a pretty straightforward reason for these increases, according to David C. Harvey, executive director of the National Coalition of STD Directors (NCSD), a public health organization representing individuals and groups working to prevent the spread of STDs.
Untreated sexually transmitted diseases can lead to severe adverse health effects that include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth in infants, and increased HIV risk. The diseases can be treated with antibiotics, but gonorrhea has become resistant to almost every class of antibiotics except ceftriaxone. Azithromycin was added to help delay the development of resistance to ceftriaxone.
Ceftriaxone is the only remaining effective antibiotic for treating gonorrhea in the United States. "We can't let our defenses down - we must continue reinforcing efforts to rapidly detect and prevent resistance as long as possible".