A research team of Indian astronomers has identified a huge super cluster of galaxies, as large as 20 million billion suns, that they have named as Saraswati, as stated by Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) which is based in Pune on Thursday. The astronomers from Pune-based Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) have named the cluster Saraswati. When sighting a supercluster of galaxies 4 billion light years away, the observer is looking back about 4 billion years.
Extremely large supercluster of galaxies - as big as 20 million billion suns.
Most other superclusters, such as the Shapley Concentration and the Sloan Great Wall, are located in the nearby universe. The findings of these scientists were published in the latest issue of The Astrophysical Journal, the premier research journal of the American Astronomical Society.
Massive superclusters are collections of tens of thousands of galaxies bound by gravity and represent the largest distinct structures in the cosmos. As the Saraswati supercluster was formed relatively early, it could give us a unique opportunity to characterise the early universe and probe the tiny fluctuations that expanded after the big bang to form the largest structures.
Indian astronomers have surveyed a giant galactic supercluster located 4 million light-years from Earth. "This supercluster is clearly embedded in a large network of cosmic filaments traced by clusters and large voids", Bagchi said.
It is estimated that there are 10 million superclusters in the whole universe.
In recent years, the discovery of the present-day universe being dominated by "Dark Energy", which behaves very differently from gravitation, might play a role in the formation of these structures. "The Saraswati supercluster is far more distant", Bagchi added. They have named it "Saraswati" after the Hindu goddess of knowledge. The Saraswati supercluster was formed in an era when it is thought that dark energy was just starting to accelerate the universe's expansion, making it a product of the delicate balance between dark energy and dark matter. Along with Dr. Joydeep Bagchi, the lead author of the paper, he began studying this region 15 years ago, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and found two clusters close by. "Our own galaxy is part of a supercluster called the Laniakea supercluster", the IUCAA was quoted as saying by PTI.
"This could push astronomers into rethinking about how such large structures form".